# word series. Part -2

# word series. Part 2
List of words.
1.Benighted-[ bi- nahy- tid]
Adjective.
Meaning– intellectually or morally ignorant, unenlightened.
Synonyms-ignorant.
Antonyms-enlightened.
2.Mercurial-[mer-Kyoo r-ee-uhl]
Adjective.
Meaning-changeable, erratic, fickle.
Synonyms-impulsive, unstable, unpredictable etc.
Antonyms-calm,tranquil,unchangeable.
3.Disjune-[dis-joon]
Noun.
Meaning-breakfast.
4. Peculate-[pek-yuh -leyt ]
Verb.
Meaning-to steal or take dishonestly.
Synonyms-fraud, misuse, theft etc.
Antonyms-compensation, reimbursement, return.
5.Aberration-[ab-uh-rey -shuh n]
Noun.
Meaning-the act of departing from the right, normal or usual course.
Synonyms-delusion,weirdness, strangeness.
Antonyms-conformity, normality.
Source : dictionary.com and thesaurus.com 

Pronouns.

Observe the sentences given below.
1. Have you seen the dress? It is really beautiful.
2. Jane went for the movie and She liked it.
In the above sentences the word ‘it’ is used for the ‘dress’. Similarly, in the second sentence the word ‘she’ is used for ‘jane’ and ‘it’ is used for the ‘movie
So we can see the words i.e nouns are replaced by other words. These words that we use instead of nouns are  known as pronouns.
Now we shall see the different kinds of pronouns.
1. Personal pronoun– These pronouns point to three different kinds of people.
First person– The pronouns that refer to the person talking, the speaker in the sentence is called first person. Examples I, us, we etc.
Second person– This is the person being talked to in the sentence. Examples-you, yours.
Third person– it refers to the people we speak about. Examples– he, her, him etc.

First person – I,my, me,mine (singular) We,us, ours (plural)
Second person – You,yours (singular) You , yours (plural)
Third person – He,his, him, she,her, hers, it (singular) They, theirs, them (plural)
This will  help us to understand pronouns in person along with singular and plural forms.
2. Demonstrative pronouns.
Examples– 1. This is a wonderful song.
2. These are the players.
When we use pronouns like this, these, that and those to point at a person or a thing it is called as demonstrative pronouns.
3. Interrogative pronouns.
Examples– 1. Who is your best friend?
2. Which is your favourite novel?
When we ask questions we use interrogative words like who, what, which etc and these interrogative words that are used to ask questions are called interrogative pronouns.
4. Possessive pronouns.
Examples– 1. Dancing is a hobby of mine.
2. Is this book yours?
In the above examples the words ‘mine’ and ‘yours’ show possession. They show belonging that it belongs to a particular person or thing. In the first example it shows that the hobby of dancing is ‘mine’. In the second example we can see that is shows that a particular book belongs to ‘you’ so when a pronoun used in a sentence shows possession we call it possessive pronouns.
Examples– mine, yours, his/her, theirs, ours, its.
5. Reflexive pronouns.
Examples– 1. You should be able to protect yourself against dangers.
2. We will complete the task by ourselves.
The words ‘ yourself’, ‘ourselves’ are used for emphasis. They refer to the subject in the sentence. Such pronouns such as ourselves, myself, themselves etc are called reflexive pronouns.            
Myself (first person singular) Ourselves (first person plural) 
Herself/ himself (third person singular ) Yourselves (second person plural)
Yourself. (second person singular) Themselves (third person plural) 

Takeaway– pronouns are words used in place of nouns. The four kinds of pronouns namely demonstrative which point at a person/ thing , interrogative which asks questions , reflexive which is used for emphasis and possessive which denotes possession.
Identify the types of pronouns.
1. Who is your favourite cricket player?
2. Is this gift yours?
3. These are new toys.
4. They cleaned the room by themselves. Continue reading Pronouns.

Active and passive voice.

Last time we learnt about subject and predicate. Subject is the person or thing we are speaking about or doing the action and predicate gives us more information about the subject.
Today we shall understand active and passive voice. Let us look at the sentences below.
1. The boy kicked the ball.
2. The ball was kicked by the boy.
Is there any difference between the meaning of the above two sentences? No, the meaning of the above two sentences is the name but the structure of the sentences differs.
In the first sentence the subject is “the boy”(the doer of the action).
“Kicked” is the verb (action word).
“The ball” is the object of the sentence. ( the action is performed on the object).
So, active voicesubject+verb+object.
Let’s look at the second sentence “the ball” is the object which is mentioned in the start of the sentence “was kicked” is the verb(action word) and “the boy” is the subject (doer of the action).
Passive voiceobject+ verb+subject.
The rules mentioned below are important while converting the sentences from active to passive voice in different tense forms.We always need to remember while changing the structure the meaning of the sentence should not change.
Simple present tense– object +is/am/are+ past participle of the verb +by +subject (him/her/them).
Simple past tense-object+was/were+past participle of the verb + by+subject.
Present continuous tense-object+is/am/are+ being+past participle of the verb +by+subject.
Past continuous tense-object+was/were+being+past participle of the verb+by+subject.
Future tense-object+will be +past participle of the verb +by+subject.
Future continuous tense-object +will be+ past participle of the verb +by+subject.
Takeaway.
Active voice-subject+verb+object.
Passive voice -object+verb+subject.
Identify whether the sentences are in active or passive voice.
1.The school project was completed by the students.
2.Her mother packed the bag.
Identify and Change the voice. 
1.She locked the door.
2.They cleaned the entire house.
3.The cat was chased by my dog.
4.The parcel was received by me.

#Word series. Part-1

In #word  series I post five words and its meaning from various sources along with few of its synonyms and antonyms for few words and post it on the blog. You too can post any word of your choice with its meaning for us to read in the comments section below.
List of words starting with ‘A’.
1.abstemious-[ab-stee-mee-uhs]
adjective
Meaning-sparing or moderate in eating and drinking; temperate in diet.
Synonyms-frugal, self restrained,ascetic,abstinent,austere.
Antonyms-greedy,hungry,gluttonous.
2.abstruse-[ab-stroos]
Adjective.
Meaning – hard to understand.
Synonyms-vague,complicated,Greek to me, enigmatic, perplexing, puzzling.
Antonyms-easy,clear,lucid,concrete.
3.abut-[uh- buht ]
Verb
Meaning-to be adjacent;touch or join at the edge or border(often followed by prepositions like on, upon or against).
Synonyms-adjoin.
4.abyss-[uh-bis]
Noun
Meaning-1.a deep, immeasurable space, gulf or cavity; vast chasm.
2.anything profound, unfathomable or infinite.
Synonyms-abysm.
5. Acclivity-[uh-kliv-i-tee]
Noun.
Meaning-an upward slope, as of ground; an ascent.
Synonyms-elevation,hill,rise,upgrade.
Antonyms-declivity.
Source:dictionary.com and thesaurus.com

 

Subject and predicate.

Last time we studied that a sentence is a group of words put together to make a complete sense and the four kinds of sentences namely declarative/assertive, ( facts/ statements)interrogative, (question) imperative (request/command)and exclamatory (strong emotions).
Today ,we shall try to understand more about sentences.
A sentence consists of two partssubject and predicate.
Subject– subject is the person or thing that is doing some action or the person/ thing we are speaking about.
A sentence will always have a subject and a verb ( action word).
Predicate– It gives us more information about the person or thing that we are talking about or is doing the action (subject). Verb is part of the predicate.
Let’s try to understand with our topic with the following example.
ExampleThe boy kicked the ball.
In the above sentence ‘the boy’ is the subject of the sentence because boy is the focus of the sentence, the subject we are talking about.
‘Kicked’ is the verb in the sentence.
‘Kicked the ball’ is the predicate of the sentence as it gives us more information about the subject (boy) in this case. It answers the question what did the boy do? So, he kicked the ball. The predicate will answer questions asked to the subject.
Usually the subject is in the beginning of the sentence but in some cases the subject is placed after the predicate. Let’s take a look at one such example.
ExampleHere are your keys.
‘Your keys’ is the subject of the sentence. Where are your keys? ‘Here’.
If the same sentence has subject in the beginning it will be ‘your keys are here’.
In some cases the subject is omitted from the sentence. In such sentences ‘you’ is to be understood as the subject.
Examplestand up. ( here ‘you’ is to be understood as the subject).
There can be more than one subject in the sentence. Such subject are put together by compound words like ‘and’, ‘or’ and if the subject is more than two people or things a comma (,) is inserted in the sentence. Let’s see an example of such sentence.
Examplekate,Jane and Rose went for the show.
Here the subject is more than one ‘Kate, Jane and Rose’. ‘Went’ is the verb and ‘went for the show’ is the predicate as it gives us answer to our question where did they go? And also gives us more information about our subject.
Takeaway
1. A sentence contains a subject and a predicate.
2. Subject is the person or thing we are talking about.
3.Predicate gives us more information about the subject of the sentence.
4. There can be more than one subject in the sentence.
5. In some cases a subject is omitted and sometimes a subject comes after the predicate.
Let’s try to find the subject and predicate in the following sentences.
1. The birds are flying in the sky.
2. I rode on a horse.
3. Thank them.
4. William and his brother looks after the garden.

Cheat day.

I’m a newbie when it comes to writing blogs. I have never felt the need or rather confidence to share something on a larger platform because I have never been able to express myself through the medium of writing. Being a teacher I’m accustomed to just talk and talk for hours. The sole purpose of starting this blog apart from sharing grammar rules was I resist trying new things but I felt the need to get out of my comfort zone and try something new and this little step of writing a blog is my way to break the monotony of life and try new things and accept new situations that come in my life. This blog as the name suggests sticks to only English topics to be more precise grammar topics and so I have typed retyped thinking I’m breaking the rule of sticking to only the subject for which I started the blog in first place but then I decided to calm my nerves and think this as a diet “cheat day”. Speaking of trying new things I decided to try my hands at writing poems few months back and with hesitation I decide to upload one here.
Poem.
The sky is dark and the night is cold and I sit here and wonder if my knight in shining armour is from Rhodes(Greece).
His large almond like eyes and thick camel like lashes help my worries to unload.
Shall I describe my lover with his locks curl as if they have been pressed or go on to describe his soldierly chest?
Is my Eros love for my beau grown as a result of his radiant olive skin tone?
No, it’s not the result of his fancy rolled up sleeves or any of the Greek love tragedies but the love that my beloved has in his heart for me.

kinds of sentences.

Unlike animal system of communications humans use words and sentences which help us to communicate with one another.  

Asentenceisagroupofwordsputtogethertomakeacompletesense.
Always remember that every sentence begins with a capital letter.
Sentences are of four kinds:
1.Declarative/assertivesentence– A sentence which states or declares something.
Example– The sun rises in the east.
The above example states fact about the sun.
Remember to put a full stop(.) after every declarative/ assertive sentence.
2. Interrogativesentence– when we ask a question such sentence is called interrogative sentence.
Example– can you solve these maths sums?
A question mark (?) is placed at the end of such sentence.
3.Exclamatorysentence– sentences which express surprise or any intense emotion is known as exclamatory sentence.
Example– how beautiful this house is!
An exclamation mark (!) is placed at the end of such sentence.
4. Imperativesentence– when a sentence expresses a command/ order or request. we call is imperative sentence.
Example-1. shut the door.
2. Please take me to the show.
In such sentences a full stop(.) is placed after the sentence.
Takeaway– four types of sentences- Declarative/ assertive, interrogative, exclamatory and imperative.
Identifythetype of sentences.
1.put your phone away.
2.When will you leave for school?
3.What a tragedy!
4.Delhi is the capital of India.